In many of the regions with abundant solar energy, atmospheric aerosols, and dust in particular, comprise a pressing issue in harnessing their energy potential. A better understanding of the natural and environmental boundaries of energy systems can yield to performance optimization of current technology. This work aims to incorporate the analysis of atmospheric dust into the modeling and simulation of PV system, as opposed to treating it as a system externality. A methodology developed to quantify the impact of dust, and a subsequent spatiotemporal model that simulates the energy losses due to dust, are presented. The model also includes a dust mitigation dimension, which allows for optimizing choice of self-cleaning technology at a particular time and location, to potentially recover some of the energy lost due to dust. The model is intended for a large-scale, pre- design stage planning of solar PV systems, and is tested using Saudi Arabia as a case study.